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Added: Laquisha Vallecillo - Date: Learn More. This study investigated associations between viewing sexually-explicit material SEM and relationship functioning in a random sample of unmarried individuals in romantic relationships. More men Measures of communication, relationship adjustment, commitment, sexual satisfaction, and infidelity were examined.
Those who viewed SEM only with their partners reported more dedication and higher sexual satisfaction than those who viewed SEM alone. The only difference between those who never viewed SEM and those who viewed it only with their partners was that those who never viewed it had lower rates of infidelity. Implications for future research in this area as well as for sex therapy and couple therapy are discussed.
Various facets of pornography and its effect on our Wives looking real sex Stanley have been studied for decades. In terms of how it relates to romantic relationships, there has been a focus on men who view it alone and how this behavior affects their romantic partners or their views of partners e. With regard to women, most research has examined women's use of and attitudes about pornography e. The present study investigated these dynamics in the United States and also examined how viewing SEM with one's romantic partner relates to relationship quality and functioning.
However, many researchers divide pornography into sub, such as sexually-violent pornography, nonviolent pornography, and erotica. Erotica portrays more positive and affectionate sexual encounters with more balance of power than the first two Stock, Given the novelty of the focus of the current study, we did not use such sub.
Viewing SEM on one's own without a romantic partner appears to be most common among 18 to 25 year olds who are sexually active, have low Wives looking real sex Stanley of sexual anxiety, and report higher s of sexual partners Carroll et al. Additionally, Stack, Wasserman, and Kern found that being less religious was a strong predictor of viewing SEM on the internet.
Boies found the male to female ratio of SEM viewing to be in younger populations and in older populations. Research on the consequences of viewing SEM alone for attitudes about partners and for relationship functioning is somewhat mixed. Some research indicates deleterious effects for men's views of their partners and relationships. For example, Kenrick et al. They theorized that this may be because exposure to SEM le men to misperceive what a typical naked body looks like. Their earlier work supports this notion; men who found centerfolds attractive rated themselves as less in love with their partners Kenrick et al.
Interestingly, the same exposure did not affect women's ratings of love for their partners Kenrick et al. They also placed increased importance on sexual activity without emotional involvement. Other research indicates that prolonged exposure to pornography may be related to doubts about the value of marriage and higher endorsement of non-monogamous relationships Zillmann, This body of research indicates that exposure to SEM can be associated with negative relationship consequences, perhaps especially for men. On the other hand, other work has failed to find links between viewing SEM and negative attitudes about women or relationships.
Linz, Donnerstein, and Penrod found that exposure to non-violent pornography did not increase men's judgments of women as sexual objects. Taken together, it appears that although some men may experience increases in negative opinions about women after exposure to SEM, not all men are affected in such negative ways.
At the same time, we should note that we know of no studies that have demonstrated a positive effect of viewing SEM alone for relationship functioning in general or for men's views of their partners. Although some research has examined women's general attitudes about pornography in tandem with men's attitudes about SEM e.
For instance, Bergner and Bridges found that when women judged their partners' viewing as excessive, they tended to believe it had a negative effect on the relationship. They studied posts to internet message boards from women who thought their partners' viewing of pornography was excessive. However, these two samples were selected based on very frequent use of SEM by male partners, so their opinions are most likely more extreme than those of women in general.
Research that has assessed the opinions of more representative women regarding their partners' SEM viewing indicates that they tend not to hold such negative opinions as the women in the two studies Bridges et al. Women who reported their partners' viewing as high in terms of frequency and duration reported the most distress Bridges et al. These imply that women may not view their partners' SEM viewing as unhealthy as long as they do not perceive that viewing as excessive.
In fact, some women may even view their partners' pornography use as enhancing their sexual relationship. One of the limitations of the literature on SEM and romantic relationships is that most studies assess individuals' attitudes toward the opposite gender or toward relationships after being exposed to SEM in an experimental context, which does not necessarily reflect real-life experiences. The current study addressed a gap in this field by exploring the ways in which viewing SEM alone or together in one's personal life outside of an experiment and of one's own volition was related to several indices of relationship quality and functioning.
Assessing behavior as it occurs naturally as opposed to behavior induced in an experimental paradigm allows to more closely mirror the general public's natural behavior and responses. For instance, when asked about their most recent viewing of a sexually-explicit film, women were more likely to say that they had seen it with their partner than alone whereas men were more likely to report having seen it alone Traeen et al.
In the same study, women were twice as likely as men to have said that someone else had bought the sexually-explicit magazines they had viewed. However, to our knowledge, there is very little prior research on how viewing SEM with a partner outside of an experiment is related to relationship functioning. Some studies have explored the reactions of men and women to being asked to view SEM in the presence of other people. While it does not directly address our central research questions, this research may be useful in understanding how viewing SEM with one's romantic partner is related to relationship quality.
The clinical literature is also relevant to the discussion of viewing SEM with a romantic partner. Additionally, one study indicated that therapists were 2. Thus, some professionals have endorsed the idea that consensual viewing of SEM can be healthy and helpful in a committed relationship, though little research exists to support or refute this notion.
The present study sought to expand the literature on how viewing SEM, either alone or together with one's romantic partner, was related to other relationship characteristics. Based on the research that is available Wives looking real sex Stanley how viewing SEM alone affects opinions of romantic partners, particularly for men, we expected that individuals who did not view SEM at all would report higher relationship quality on a of indices, including general relationship adjustment, commitment, communication quality, and sexual satisfaction, as well as lower rates of infidelity than those who viewed SEM by themselves.
On the other hand, we expected that viewing SEM together, but not alone, would relate to relationship quality in a positive direction. It could also be that relationships in which partners engaged in using SEM together are characterized by higher relationship quality because of the level of trust and intimacy needed to be able to discuss and decide together to view SEM tly. These hypotheses were examined in the current study using a large, random sample of 18—35 year-old men and women in unmarried relationships. Additionally, given that so little research has examined characteristics of those who view SEM alone versus together with their partners, we present some basic descriptive data on our sample before testing our research questions about relationship quality and functioning.
The sample for the current study included men All participants were unmarried, but in romantic relationships, with In terms of ethnicity, this sample was 8. In terms of race, the sample was To recruit participants for the larger project, a calling center used a targeted-listed telephone sampling strategy to call households within the contiguous United States. After a brief introduction to the study, individuals were screened for participation. To qualify, participants needed to be between 18 and 34 and be in an unmarried relationship with a member of the opposite sex that had lasted 2 months or longer.
The criterion for length of the relationship was established so that we obtained data on relatively stable dating relationships, which was a necessity for the aims of the larger project. Of those who were mailed forms, 1, individuals returned them Of these, three individuals did not answer items regarding SEM, thus the final sample for the current study was For the larger project, these individuals are followed longitudinally, but the current study only employed data from the initial wave of data collection.
Data on basic background characteristics e. This scale has demonstrated adequate reliability and validity in work Kline et al. This measure included items Wives looking real sex Stanley happiness, thoughts about dissolution, confiding in one another, and a general item about how well the relationship is going.
Many studies have demonstrated this measure's reliability and validity e. This item has demonstrated validity in research Rhoades et al. When omnibus tests were ificant, we then used t -tests to examine specific ificant differences among the groups. There were no ificant SEM group X gender interactions on any variables, so these are not reported. All means and SDs are reported in Table 1. Effect sizes Cohen's d for ificant differences are presented in the text. Means, SDs, and ificant differences as a function of sexually-explicit viewing groups. Note : Across rows, different superscripts indicate ificant differences between groups using a Bonferroni correction; means that have the same superscript were not ificantly different from one another.
For Religiosity, Dedication, and Sexual Satisfaction, absolute range was 1—7; for Negative Communication, absolute range was 1—3; for Relationship Adjustment, absolute range was 0— ificantly more men In this sample, A two-by-two chi-square indicated that individuals who were cohabiting were more likely to report that they viewed SEM together There was no ificant difference between cohabiting and dating individuals in regards to viewing SEM alone.
We used a four-by-two chi-square to assess the relationships between SEM group and self-reported infidelity yes or no. Across the groups, 9. Follow-up tests indicated that individuals in the no-SEM group reported ificantly less infidelity in their relationships than the other three groups.
Much of the past research on viewing SEM and relationships has been conducted in laboratories using experiments and random asment e. In contrast, the current study asked individuals about their own experiences with SEM and assessed how viewing SEM with one's romantic partner or on one's own was associated with key dimensions of relationship quality. Before discussing how viewing SEM in different contexts was related to relationship functioning, we discuss the findings from our more descriptive analyses.
Our descriptive supported the generally accepted finding that more men than women view SEM by themselves e. However, we did not find any ificant gender differences with regard to viewing SEM with partners. Nearly half of both men and women reported that they have viewed SEM with their romantic partner.
The length of relationship was unrelated to whether individuals had viewed SEM with their partner or alone, but those who were cohabiting were more likely to have viewed SEM with their partner than those who were dating, but not living together. Although this behavior is rarely addressed in research on couples and relationship functioning, these descriptive findings suggest that viewing SEM together is a common activity among young unmarried couples.
Patterns of viewing SEM were also related to religiosity. Regarding viewing SEM and relationship functioning, our hypothesis that individuals who did not view SEM at all would report higher relationship functioning than those who viewed SEM alone was mostly supported. As expected, individuals who did not view SEM at all reported lower negative communication and higher dedication than individuals who viewed SEM alone or both alone and with their partner.
Additionally, individuals who did not view SEM at all reported higher sexual satisfaction and relationship adjustment compared to those who viewed SEM only alone. Lastly, those who did not view SEM at all had an infidelity rate that was at least half that of the other three groups. The effect sizes for these differences were generally small. Our hypothesis that individuals who viewed SEM with their partner would have higher relationship functioning than those who viewed SEM alone was partially supported.Looking Real Sex Stanley
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