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Added: Sanjay Featherston - Date: 03.05.2022 11:42 - Views: 28296 - Clicks: 4012

A species is defined as a group of individuals that, in nature, are able to mate and produce viable, fertile offspring. A species is a group of individual organisms that interbreed and produce fertile, viable offspring. According to this definition, one species is distinguished from another when, in nature, it is not possible for matings between individuals from each species to produce fertile offspring. Members of the same species share both external and internal characteristics which develop from their DNA. The closer relationship two organisms share, the more DNA they have in common, just like people and their families.

Organisms of the same species have the highest level of DNA alignment and, therefore, share characteristics and behaviors that lead to successful reproduction. For example, even though domestic dogs Canis lupus familiaris display phenotypic differences, such as size, build, and coat, most dogs can interbreed and produce viable puppies that can mature and sexually reproduce.

Interbreeding in Dogs : Dogs of different breeds still have the ability to reproduce. The a poodle and b cocker spaniel can reproduce to produce a breed known as c the cockapoo. In other cases, individuals may appear similar although they are not members of the same species. For example, even though bald eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus and African fish eagles Haliaeetus vocifer are both birds and eagles, each belongs to a separate species group.

If humans were to artificially intervene and fertilize the egg of a bald eagle with the sperm of an African fish eagle and a chick did hatch, that offspring, called a hybrid a cross between two species , would probably be infertile: unable to successfully reproduce after it reached maturity. Different species may have different genes that are active in development; therefore, it may not be possible to develop a viable offspring with two different sets of directions.

Thus, even though hybridization may take place, the two species still remain separate. The a African fish eagle is similar in appearance to the b bald eagle, but the two birds are members of different species. Populations of species share a gene pool: a collection of all the variants of genes in the species. Again, the basis to any changes in a group or population of organisms must be genetic for this is the only way to share and pass on traits.

When variations occur within a species, they can only be passed to the next generation along two main pathways: asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. The change will be passed on asexually simply if the reproducing cell possesses the changed trait. For the changed trait to be passed on by sexual reproduction, a gamete, such as a sperm or egg cell, must possess the changed trait. In other words, sexually-reproducing organisms can experience several genetic changes in their body cells, but if these changes do not occur in a sperm or egg cell, the changed trait will never reach the next generation.

Only heritable traits can evolve. Therefore, reproduction plays a paramount role for genetic change to take root in a population or species. In short, organisms must be able to reproduce with each other to pass new traits to offspring. Reproductive isolation, through mechanical, behavioral, and physiological barriers, is an important component of speciation. Given enough time, the genetic and phenotypic divergence between populations will affect characters that influence reproduction: if individuals of the two populations were to be brought together, mating would be improbable, but if mating did occur, offspring would be non-viable or infertile.

Many types of diverging characters may affect reproductive isolation, the ability to interbreed, of the two populations. Reproductive isolation is a collection of mechanisms, behaviors, and physiological processes that prevent the members of two different species that cross or mate from producing offspring, or which ensure that any offspring that may be produced is not fertile.

Scientists classify reproductive isolation in two groups: prezygotic barriers and postzygotic barriers. Recall that a zygote is a fertilized egg: the first cell of the development of an organism that reproduces sexually. Therefore, a prezygotic barrier is a mechanism that blocks reproduction from taking place; this includes barriers that prevent fertilization when organisms attempt reproduction.

Some types of prezygotic barriers prevent reproduction entirely. Many organisms only reproduce at certain times of the year, often just annually. Differences in breeding schedules, called temporal isolation, can act as a form of reproductive isolation. For example, two species of frogs inhabit the same area, but one reproduces from January to March, whereas the other reproduces from March to May. Temporal isolation : These two related frog species exhibit temporal reproductive isolation. In some cases, populations of a species move to a new habitat and take up residence in a place that no longer overlaps with other populations of the same species; this is called habitat isolation.

Reproduction with the parent species ceases and a new group exists that is now reproductively and genetically independent. For example, a cricket population that was divided after a flood could no longer interact with each other.

Over time, the forces of natural selection, mutation, and genetic drift will likely result in the divergence of the two groups. Habitat isolation : Speciation can occur when two populations occupy different habitats. The habitats need not be far apart. The cricket a Gryllus pennsylvanicus prefers sandy soil, while the cricket b Gryllus firmus prefers loamy soil. The two species can live in close proximity, but because of their different soil preferences, they became genetically isolated.

Behavioral isolation occurs when the presence or absence of a specific behavior prevents reproduction from taking place. For example, male fireflies use specific light patterns to attract females. Various species display their lights differently; if a male of one species tried to attract the female of another, she would not recognize the light pattern and would not mate with the male.

Other prezygotic barriers work when differences in their gamete cells prevent fertilization from taking place; this is called a gametic barrier. Similarly, in some cases, closely-related organisms try to mate, but their reproductive structures simply do not fit together. For example, damselfly males of different species have differently-shaped reproductive organs. If one species tries to mate with the female of another, their body parts simply do not fit together..

Differences in reproductive structures in male damselflies : The shape of the male reproductive organ varies among male damselfly species and is only compatible with the female of that species. Reproductive organ incompatibility keeps the species reproductively isolated. In plants, certain structures aimed to attract one type of pollinator simultaneously prevent a different pollinator from accessing the pollen. The tunnel through which an animal must access nectar can vary in length and diameter, which prevents the plant from being cross-pollinated with a different species.

Reproductive isolation in plants : Some flowers have evolved to attract certain pollinators. The a wide foxglove flower is adapted for pollination by bees, while the b long, tube-shaped trumpet creeper flower is adapted for pollination by humming birds. When fertilization takes place and a zygote forms, postzygotic barriers can prevent reproduction. Hybrid individuals in many cases cannot form normally in the womb and simply do not survive past the embryonic stages; this is called hybrid inviability.

In another postzygotic situation, reproduction le to the birth and growth of a hybrid that is sterile and unable to reproduce offspring of their own; this is called hybrid sterility. The biological definition of species, which works for sexually-reproducing organisms, is a group of actually or potentially interbreeding individuals.

There are exceptions to this rule. Many species are similar enough that hybrid offspring are possible and may often occur in nature, but for the majority of species this rule generally holds. In fact, the presence in nature of hybrids between similar species suggests that they may have descended from a single interbreeding species: the speciation process may not yet be completed. Given the extraordinary diversity of life on the planet, there must be mechanisms for speciation: the formation of two species from one original species.

Darwin envisioned this process as a branching event and diagrammed the process in the only illustration found in On the Origin of Species , which bears some resemblance to the more modern phylogenetic diagram of elephant evolution.

The diagram shows that as one species changes over time, it branches repeatedly to form more than one new species as long as the population survives or until the organism becomes extinct. The diagram shows similarities to phylogenetic charts that are drawn today to illustrate the relationships of species.

For speciation to occur, two new populations must be formed from one original population; they must evolve in such a way that it becomes impossible for individuals from the two new populations to interbreed. Biologists have proposed mechanisms by which this could occur that fall into two broad : allopatric speciation and sympatric speciation. Biologists think of speciation events as the splitting of one ancestral species into two descendant species. There is no reason why there might not be more than two species formed at one time except that it is less likely; multiple events can be conceptualized as single splits occurring close in time.

Allopatric speciation occurs when a single species becomes geographically separated; each group evolves new and distinctive traits. A geographically-continuous population has a gene pool that is relatively homogeneous. Gene flow, the movement of alleles across the range of the species, is relatively free because individuals can move and then mate with individuals in their new location.

Thus, the frequency of an allele at one end of a distribution will be similar to the frequency of the allele at the other end. When populations become geographically discontinuous, that free-flow of alleles is prevented. When that separation continues for a period of time, the two populations are able to evolve along different trajectories. This is known as allopatric speciation. Thus, their allele frequencies at numerous genetic loci gradually become more and more different as new alleles independently arise by mutation in each population.

Typically, environmental conditions, such as climate, resources, predators, and competitors for the two populations will differ causing natural selection to favor divergent adaptations in each group. Isolation of populations leading to allopatric speciation can occur in a variety of ways: a river forming a new branch, erosion forming a new valley, a group of organisms traveling to a new location without the ability to return, or seeds floating over the ocean to an island.

The nature of the geographic separation necessary to isolate populations depends entirely on the biology of the organism and its potential for dispersal. If two flying insect populations took up residence in separate nearby valleys, chances are individuals from each population would fly back and forth, continuing gene flow. However, if two rodent populations became divided by the formation of a new lake, continued gene flow would be improbable; therefore, speciation would be probably occur.

Biologists group allopatric processes into two : dispersal and vicariance. Dispersal occurs when a few members of a species move to a new geographical area, while vicariance occurs when a natural situation arises to physically divide organisms. Scientists have documented numerous cases of allopatric speciation. For example, along the west coast of the United States, two separate sub-species of spotted owls exist. The northern spotted owl has genetic and phenotypic differences from its close relative, the Mexican spotted owl, which lives in the south.

Allopatric speciation due to geographic separation : The northern spotted owl and the Mexican spotted owl inhabit geographically separate locations with different climates and ecosystems. The owl is an example of allopatric speciation. Additionally, scientists have found that the further the distance between two groups that once were the same species, the more probable it is that speciation will occur.

This seems logical because as the distance increases, the various environmental factors would generally have less in common than locations in close proximity. Consider the two owls: in the north, the climate is cooler than in the south causing the types of organisms in each ecosystem differ, as do their behaviors and habits. Also, the hunting habits and prey choices of the southern owls vary from the northern owls. These variances can lead to evolved differences in the owls, resulting in speciation. In some cases, a population of one species disperses throughout an area with each finding a distinct niche or isolated habitat.

Over time, the varied demands of their new lifestyles lead to multiple speciation events originating from a single species. This is called adaptive radiation because many adaptations evolve from a single point of origin, causing the species to radiate into several new ones. Island archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands provide an ideal context for adaptive radiation events because water surrounds each island which le to geographical isolation for many organisms.

The Hawaiian honeycreeper illustrates one example of adaptive radiation. From a single species, called the founder species, numerous species have evolved. Adaptive Radiation : The honeycreeper birds illustrate adaptive radiation. From one original species of bird, multiple others evolved, each with its own distinctive characteristics. In Hawaiian honeycreepers, the response to natural selection based on specific food sources in each new habitat led to the evolution of a different beak suited to the specific food source. The seed-eating birds have a thicker, stronger beak which is suited to break hard nuts.

The nectar-eating birds have long beaks to dip into flowers to reach the nectar. The insect-eating birds have beaks like swords, appropriate for stabbing and impaling insects. Sympatric speciation occurs when two individual populations diverge from an ancestral species without being separated geographically. Can divergence occur if no physical barriers are in place to separate individuals who continue to live and reproduce in the same habitat? The answer is yes. The process of speciation within the same space is called sympatric speciation.

One form of sympatric speciation can begin with a serious chromosomal error during cell division. In a normal cell division event, chromosomes replicate, pair up, and then separate so that each new cell has the same of chromosomes.

However, sometimes the pairs separate and the end cell product has too many or too few individual chromosomes in a condition called aneuploidy. Aneuploidy of chromosomes : Aneuploidy when the gametes have too many or too few chromosomes due to nondisjunction during meiosis. Polyploidy is a condition in which a cell or organism has an extra set, or sets, of chromosomes. Scientists have identified two main types of polyploidy that can lead to reproductive isolation, or the inability to interbreed with normal individuals, of an individual in the polyploidy state.

In some cases, a polyploid individual will have two or more complete sets of chromosomes from its own species in a condition called autopolyploidy. Polyploidy from an error in meiosis in which all of the chromosomes move into one cell instead of separating. The generation of autopolyploidy : Autopolyploidy when meiosis is not followed by cytokinesis. These new gametes will be incompatible with the normal gametes produced by this plant species. However, they could either self-pollinate or reproduce with other autopolyploid plants with gametes having the same diploid .

In this way, sympatric speciation can occur quickly by forming offspring with 4n: a tetraploid. These individuals would immediately be able to reproduce only with those of this new kind and not those of the ancestral species. The other form of polyploidy occurs when individuals of two different species reproduce to form a viable offspring called an allopolyploid. Therefore, an allopolyploid occurs when gametes from two different species combine. Notice how it takes two generations, or two reproductive acts, before the viable fertile hybrid .

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